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Shaping Policy for Health™ Assessing and Framing the Policy Problem Background & Evidence
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Shaping Policy for Health™ Background & Evidence

  1. Assessing and Framing the Policy Problem
  2. Using Policy Analysis Tools
  3. Influencing the Policy Change Process
  4. Implementing Enacted Policies
  5. Evaluating Policy Interventions

Stakeholder Perspectives and Socio-Political Values

"Issue Papers.” Berkeley Media Studies Group. 10 March 2010 <>.

Rochefort, D.A. and R.W. Cobb, ed. The Politics of Problem Definition: Shaping the Policy Agenda. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1994.

Stone, D. Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. Rev. ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2002.

Wallack, L. and R. Lawrence. "Talking about public health: developing America's "second language”.” American Journal of Public Health 95 (2005): 567-70.

Kingdon, John W. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. 2nd ed. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers, 1995. (ISBN: 0-673-52389-6)

Novick, L.F. and G.P. Mays. Public Health Administration: Principles for Population-Based Management. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett, 2001.

Quade, E.W. Analysis for public decisions. New York: North-Holland, 1989.

Weiss, J.A. "The powers of problem definition: The case of government paperwork.” Policy Sciences 22 (1989): 97-121.

Health Determinants and Disparities

Anderson, L.M., Scrimshaw, S.C., Fullilove, M.T., Fielding, J.E., and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. "The Community Guide's model for linking the social environments to health.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 24.3S (2003): 12-20.

"Social Environment and Health Logic Framework.” Community Guide to Preventive Services. 10 March 2010 <>.

Frohlich, K.L. and L. Potvin. "The inequality paradox: the population approach and vulnerable populations.” American Journal of Public Health 98 (2008): 216-221.

Hofrichter, R. Creating Health Equity Through Social Justice. Washington DC: NACCHO, 2002. 10 March 2010 <>.

Hofrichter, R. Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Health Practice: A Handbook for Action. Washington, DC: NACCHO, 2006.

Krieger, N. "Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective.” International Journal of Epidemiology 30 (2001): 668-677.

Krieger, N. "Embodiment: a conceptual glossary for epidemiology.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59 (2005): 350-355.

Raphael, D. "Social determinants of health: present status, unanswered questions, and future directions.” International Journal of Health Services 36 (2006): 651-77.

Making Partners: Intersectoral Action for Health. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1990.

"World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health.” World Health Organization. 10 March 2010 <>.

Evidence and Data

Allee, N., et al. Public Health Information and Data: A Training Manual. Bethesda MD: National Library of Medicine, 2004. 10 March 2010 <>.

Anderson, L.M., et al. "Evidence-based public health policy and practice: promises and limits.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 28.5S (2005): 226-30.

"The Guide to Community Preventive Services.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 10 March 2010 <>.

"PACE EH: Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health.” NACCHO. 10 March 2010 <>.

Petticrew, M., et al. "Evidence for public health policy on inequalities: the reality according to policymakers.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 58 (2004): 811-816.

"Public Health Information and Data Tutorial.Partners in Information Access for the Public Health Workforce. 10 March 2010 <>.

Framing and Reframing

Berkeley Media Studies Group and the Praxis Project. "Meta Messaging: Framing Your Case and Reinforcing Your Allies.” Berkeley Media Studies Group. Jan 2005. 10 March 2010 <>.

"Bringing Policy Change to Your Community.Center for Health Improvement. 10 March 2010 <>.

Dorfman, L., L. Wallack and K. Woodruff. "More than a message: framing public health advocacy to change corporate practices.” Health Education and Behavior 32 (2005): 320-36.

"Framing Public Issues.” The Frameworks Institute. Washington, DC: The Frameworks Institute, 2002. 10 March 2010 <>.

Lakoff, G. Simple Framing. Berkeley, CA: The Rockridge Institute, 2005.

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