Many children and adolescents in the United States have grown accustomed to a sedentary lifestyle. Only about half of youth meet the current Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans' recommendation of at least 60 minutes of daily vigorous to moderate-intensity physical activity. This increases youths' health risks and can jeopardize their well-being throughout their lives. Physical activity is also critical to children's cognitive development and academic success. The school environment is key in encouraging and providing opportunities for children and adolescents to be active. This new IOM report examines the status of physical activity and physical education efforts in schools, how physical activity and fitness affect health outcomes, what can be done to help schools get students to become more active in the school environment.